Cómo construir un jardín acuático con cascada sólo con cemento y ladrillos

Updated: Sep. 03, 2023

FH00JUN_WATERG_01-2Family Handyman
Build your own pond and waterfall, then stock it with plants and fish. Learn the basic techniques for creating a relaxing water feature in your own backyard.

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Time
Multiple Days
Complexity
Beginner
Cost
$501-1000

Descripción general

Construyendo los lados

Tómese el tiempo para organizar las rocas en combinaciones agradables.

Hay algo relajante en el olor, el sonido y la vista del agua, algo que elimina el estrés y la tensión.

En esta historia, lo guiaremos a través de los pasos básicos para construir una de nuestras ideas favoritas de jardines acuáticos: un estanque en el patio trasero.

El estanque básico consta de un revestimiento de buena calidad, una bomba de alta eficiencia y mucha piedra y grava.

Con ideas para jardines acuáticos, una planificación cuidadosa evita problemas posteriores

Foto 1: Diseña el estanque con una manguera.

Utilice una manguera de jardín para establecer los bordes aproximados del estanque, ajustándola y reajustándola hasta que esté satisfecho con la forma del estanque.

Foto 2: Establecer los límites del estanque.

Coloque un nivel en una tabla lo suficientemente largo como para abarcar el agujero.

Foto 3: Comprueba la profundidad.

Mida la profundidad del hoyo y los estantes de las plantas, teniendo en cuenta que el nivel del agua estará unos centímetros por debajo de las orillas del estanque.

Cavar el hoyo de un estanque es un trabajo duro, no un esfuerzo intelectual.

  • Select a location where you can readily enjoy your pond, close to a patio or visible from a window. Don’t stick your pond in the back corner of your yard where only the squirrels will enjoy it.
  • You can locate your pond in most any area of your yard as long as it doesn’t receive runoff from rainfall. You don’t want lawn and garden chemicals washing into your pond. As a rule, the more sun the better, but don’t discount a shadier spot. Just stay away from the area inside the canopy of your trees, the “drip line. ” If you locate your pond near trees, be prepared to clean leaves from the pond more often. Most water plants prefer sun, but some can survive in shade. Choose hardier plants and fertilize more often if you select a shaded site.
  • A toddler can drown in the smallest pond, so some building codes require fences around ponds 18 in. deep and deeper. Call your local Department of Inspections, explain that you’re building a water garden (not a swimming pool) and ask what rules apply. But if you have young kids, consider installing a fence around it anyway. Be sure to choose a fence that cannot be climbed.
  • Precaución: Before you dig, call your utility company or 811 and ask to have someone come out and mark your property for buried utilities. Utility companies usually won’t mark “private” lines, that is, lines added for convenience, such as a power line from a house to the garage or a gas line to an outdoor grill. Turn off the power or gas to these areas if you suspect a line is in the vicinity of your digging.
  • Oversize your pond if possible. Once you stock it with fish and plants, you’ll be surprised how much smaller it’ll look. Besides, a large pond is often easier to take care of than a small one. (Controlling algae is often easier with a large pond.) The additional expense is minimal. A 10 x 16-ft. size is a good starting point.
  • Water circulation is important, so position the pump as far as possible from the water inlet (waterfall, stream or fountain).
  • Digging even a small pond is a big job. Plan plenty of breaks or enlist the neighborhood teenagers to help you out for a day.
  • To power the pump, you’ll need an outdoor electrical outlet (Fig. A). Have a licensed electrician install a GFCI-protected outlet if you’re not comfortable with wiring.
  1. Use the excavated dirt to berm up around your pond or build up your waterfall area. It will save you the hassle of having it hauled away or running it around your yard in a wheelbarrow.
  2. Before you start digging, lay on the ground the water circulation pipe that goes from the pump to the waterfall. Throw the excavated soil on top of it. This will save you the work of digging a trench to bury the pipe.
  3. Use a tablet-style fertilizer pressed into the soil around your nearby landscape plantings so the nutrients don’t leach into the water.

Elija un forro flexible

Foto 4: Forrar el agujero

Cubra el lecho del estanque con un paño de 1/2 pulgada.

Foto 5: Extienda el revestimiento de goma.

Coloque el revestimiento de manera que se ajuste holgadamente a los contornos del agujero.

Foto 6: Colocar las piedras y la bomba.

Cubra los lados del estanque con cantos rodados y colóquelos en el recipiente de la bomba.

Estamos utilizando un revestimiento flexible hecho de un caucho sintético llamado EPDM (monómero de etileno propileno dieno).

También se encuentran disponibles revestimientos de plástico flexible.

Pautas para comprar un revestimiento.

  • Most professionals use a 45-mil EPDM liner. (A mil is a thousandth of an inch.) It’s strong, yet flexible enough to handle easily (Photo 5).
  • If you plan to have fish, make sure your liner is stamped “fish-safe. ” Roofers often use a type of EPDM that’s been treated with chemicals that can harm fish.
  • Purchase your liner in one single sheet, large enough to cover the entire pond bottom and sides. Liners are commonly cut and sold from 100-ft. rolls with 10- to 20-ft. widths; you can custom-order liners up to 45 ft. wide. Liners can be spliced if necessary, but it involves more work and provides an opportunity for a leak. If your waterfall or stream requires extra length, use a separate piece of liner. You don’t need to glue the two liners together as long as the stream or waterfall liner is higher than the water level of the pond.
  • Calculate the dimensions of the liner by measuring the maximum length and the maximum width of your pond, then add three times the depth measurement to each dimension. Better a bit big than a bit small.

Este diseño básico de estanque, con lados inclinados y escalonados y una bomba y cascada en extremos opuestos, se puede adaptar a estanques más grandes o más pequeños.

Haga que su estanque sea acogedor para plantas y peces

Habitante del estanque

Las plantas y los peces trabajan juntos para mantener saludable el ecosistema del estanque

Un estanque no es más que un agujero lleno de agua.

  • Before adding plants or fish to your newly filled pond, wait a week for the chemicals in the tap water to neutralize. To accelerate the process, you can add a dechlorinator to the water. Consult your water garden supplier for more info on this chemical.
  • Anchor plants in pots or baskets designed for aquatic plants. A third option is to place the roots of each plant in “root balls, ” a mix of gravel and soil in nylon stockings tied with soldering wire (Fig. A). Root balls are cheaper than pots or baskets and are easier to move. They also keep fish from disturbing the soil. Mistake: Don’t use standard potting soil in your pond. The high nutrient content encourages algae growth. Ordinary tierra de jardín is just fine.
  • If you plan to stock your pond with fish, part of it must be at least 18 in. deep.
  • If you plan to leave your fish in year-round, keep a spot open in the pond by running an aerator or fountain all winter. If your climate is so cold that the pond still freezes, purchase a floating heater. Keeping your pond open provides needed oxygen for the fish and allows gases to escape.
  • For convenience, leave hardy water plants in all winter. Bring tropicals or water plants from warmer plant zones inside for the winter.
  • Fish, like teenagers, need their space. One inch of fish for every square foot of pond surface is a good rule of thumb. For example, a 4-in. fish needs 4 sq. ft. of pond surface.
  • Hardy fish—goldfish for example— don’t require much attention. You don’t even need to feed them once they’re established, as long as your pond isn’t overstocked. Hardy ones can survive by eating insects and the plant life in your pond. They actually help keep your pond clean. If you plan to stock your pond with more exotic species, you’ll have to do more to ensure their survival. Look in a library or bookstore for books about tropical fish, home aquariums and fish ponds.

Mantenga su estanque sano: haga caer el agua

Es importante que el agua circule y se airee por todo el estanque.

La forma más espectacular de hacer circular y airear el agua en su estanque es construir una cascada y un arroyo.

Crear un flujo de agua atractivo requerirá algunos ajustes de las rocas mediante prueba y error.

Para controlar la frustrante tendencia del agua a fluir invisiblemente debajo o entre las rocas en lugar de agradablemente sobre ellas, llene los pasajes ocultos con sellador de espuma expandible.

Elegir una bomba que funcione las 24 horas del día

Compre una bomba que haga girar todo el volumen del estanque una vez por hora.

Una vez que haya determinado el tamaño de la bomba, decida si comprará una bomba de alta o baja eficiencia.

Coloque su bomba en un recipiente para bomba para evitar que se obstruya con hojas o escombros.

Mantener limpio su estanque no es difícil;

Una forma más fácil pero más costosa de limpiar estos desechos es con un sistema de espumador automático, una especie de lavavajillas para su estanque.

La segunda amenaza para un estanque limpio son las algas, plantas microscópicas que harán que su estanque se vuelva verde.

Mantenga a raya las algas limitando los nutrientes y la luz solar.

  • Shade the surface of the pond with water plants such as lilies. A good rule of thumb is to cover one-third of the surface with plants.
  • Install a variety of plants. Plants consume nutrients from fish waste and decomposing matter in your pond, stealing the food algae need to live.
  • Keep debris out of the water. As debris decomposes, it releases nutrients into the water.
  • Don’t overstock your pond with fish. Too many fish will release more nutrients than the plants and bacteria can consume, leaving food for algae.
  • Don’t overfeed your fish. Food not consumed by the fish provides nutrients for algae.
  • As a further measure, biological and mechanical filters are available from your pond supplier. They take a lot of guesswork out of keeping a balanced, clean and clear pond.

Una vez que establezca un equilibrio biológico en su estanque, el mantenimiento es mínimo.

Herramientas necesarias para este proyecto

Tenga a mano las herramientas necesarias para este proyecto de bricolaje antes de comenzar; ahorrará tiempo y frustración.

  • 4-in-1 screwdriver
  • Cordless drill
  • Drill bit set
  • Level
  • Spade
  • Tape measure
  • Utility knife
  • Wheelbarrow
  • Wire stripper/cutter

Garden hose

Materiales necesarios para este proyecto

Evite viajes de compras de último momento teniendo todos sus materiales listos con anticipación.

  • Biological/mechanical filter (optional)
  • Boulders
  • EPDM pond liner
  • Expanding foam
  • Flexible black plastic pipe
  • Gravel
  • Pond underlayment
  • Pump container
  • Rocks
  • Skimmer and filter system (optional)
  • Submersible pump

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